A generation is made up of people who have been interrelated by a historical time period, distinct limitations, and similar qualities. They tend to relate with those who have gone through the same domestic and international events, shared the same stylistic trends, and idolized like celebrities. Generations seem to hold to common convictions while simultaneously differentiating themselves from the perspectives and practices of those who have gone before or who have yet to follow. The North American landscape is made up of four major groups. In respect to their resiliency and stability, the sixty and over crowd are commonly referred to as Builders. The largest generation includes those in their forties and beyond, most commonly named Boomers, and who have prided themselves on individuality and liberality. There are Busters, made up of those in their mid-twenties and above, small in size, at times ostracized, and have sought simplicity.
Finally, the emerging generation has been labeled as the Bridgers or the Millennials in respect to their connection between two distinct time periods. The youngest generation is gifted in technology, seeking after belonging, and welcoming of change. Some refer to them as the Mosaics because “they are heterogeneous in views, tastes, beliefs, and ethnicity.” Others prefer NetGen which highlights them as the first age group to be raised always with the capability of the World Wide Web at their fingertips. According to Thom S. Rainer and Sam S. Rainer III’s study compiled in Essential Church, “More than two-thirds of young adults have dropped out between the ages of eighteen and twenty-two.” Nearly a quarter of the dropouts in today’s church occur between the ages of sixteen and twenty. Attendance in local churches has continued to dwindle. Missional recruitment and financial support is decreasing. A consumerism mentality has yet to be transformed into one of generosity. A Psalter once wrote, “I will cause your name to be remembered in all generations; therefore nations will praise you forever and ever.” Leadership has to discover and design a strategy that honors the richness of the past while simultaneously envisioning a new future. The following essay proposes a cultural study of a cross-generational ministry to the Bridgers that includes a holistic doctrine, an incarnational community, and a missional mindset.
HISTORICAL PRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE GROUP
The Bridgers have been raised in a technologically-reliant environment. In One Church, Four Generations, Gary McIntosh reveals that “computer cost-effectiveness rose one hundred million-fold from 1958 to 1997 [and] computers were 100,000 times more powerful and 1,000-fold less costly. At this rate, 79 percent [of people will be online] by 2010.” In response, commerce is forced to produce and promote innovative designs in an instant. A member of the 21st Century Internet Venture Partners was recently quoted as saying, “If you have an idea, you have to act on it now. With the Internet, an item has no time to evolve. It has to happen now.” Consequently, Bridgers are more inclined to reflect, arrange, and expand their thoughts by radically different methods than previous age groups. They are more comfortable in networking with things that surround them and can be misperceived as lacking commitment as they quickly shift between projects.
No American generation has experienced such instability in the home. Stephanie Coonts writes, “Twenty-five percent of people polled in a recent national inquiry into American morality said that for $10 million they would abandon their entire family – a large number of people are evidently willing to do the same thing for free.” Over half of the marriages initiated in the last thirty years have ended in divorce and about a third of every home is led by one parent. Rampant divorces and absentee parents have caused Millennials to doubt that families are able to stay together. There also is pressures to be sexually active when “the average age for first-time intercourse for girls is fifteen; the boys’ average is fourteen. Three-fourths of Bridgers will have sex by the time they are high school seniors [and] forty percent of fourteen-year-old girls will become pregnant at least once before they turn twenty.” Rainer states, “The most startling statistics are that, by the age of sixteen, one out of every four girls and one out of every ten boys will have been sexually abused.” Most abuse will be committed by a parent or close relative.
Worldviews have drastically morphed socially, politically, economically, demographically, and philosophically over the past fifty years. Secularization, globalization, and pluralism have all contributed to gradually de-church the culture. The Bridgers been raised with the perspectives that there are numerous accurate truths to one dilemma, that they are expected to accomplish several actions concurrently, and that two opposing facts can and do subsist. The Postmodern perspective does not bestow worth to facts alone but only when that content is individualistically meaningful. McIntosh points out that this is “the most diverse generation in United States history . . . [therefore] most Bridgers respect other people and their points of view. They believe it is important to be sensitive to other people’s feelings and to avoid hurting them.
Uncertainty has tormented this generation with confusion, isolation, and anxiety. Emotions are hidden at all costs, relationships are commonly superficial, and acceptance has become the grand prize. There are gloomy and forlorn people who have yet to step away from their shallow compliance. Underneath the luster of popularity is the pressure to endure the intimidation of the culture. Rainer warns that “in less than six years the number of Bridgers who feel stressed out about life has increased from 25 percent to nearly 40 percent. By 1991 the suicide frequency among the oldest Bridgers was 11.0 for every 100,000. The evidence is astounding – this is a generation that is in danger of being strangled by fear and hopelessness. This is the generation that will grow up in a world forever marred by the attacks on the World Trade Center that killed thousands of American citizens. They will have to navigate the uncertain storms of terrorism and poverty. Violence depicted in entertainment seems to have a contradictory outcome on the Millennials. The constant sights of brutal actions have deadened the intensity of their sympathy towards actual aggression. In the meantime, the surge of hostility produced in Hollywood has provoked a sense amongst Bridgers that they are in immense danger.
BRIDGE-BUILDING METHODS TO COMMUNICATE CROSS-CULTURALLY
The twenty-first church has to take on the attitude of Jesus who chose to make “himself nothing, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. He was reliant and transparent in sharing humanity’s necessities, difficulties, and meanings. The gospel’s essence is that God entered into the world with the intent of changing it. Christ’s message can never be reduced to mere words and concepts but rather to always be centered on the language and lifestyle of Jesus himself. The Rainers propose that “young adults are likely to stay in the church if they see church as essential to their lives.” Leadership has to assist Bridgers in discovering truth for themselves instead of merely forcing them to hold to the established doctrines of yesterday. They also need to be encouraged in that absolute truth can be discovered and that respectful debate between two viewpoints is healthy and necessary. Bridgers should be challenged in their beliefs to the point where their behavior changes. Charles H. Kraft proposes that, “What we seek is the kind of Christianity that is equivalent in its dynamics in today’s society to the Christianity we see in the pages of the New Testament.” By drawing from Scripture, they might expand their knowledge of various situations, perceive how God has utilized these principles, and grow in the discipline of successful communication.
In order to share Christ with the emerging generation, the pastoral leadership has the responsibility of taking existing busy, programmatic, and attractional churches and navigating the Bridgers through the transformation of becoming simple, intentional, and missional in their approach. The extended description of a simple church is one that “is designed around a straightforward and strategic process that moves people through the stages of spiritual growth. The leadership and the church have to be clear about the process and are equally committed to executing it. The process will have to flow logically and be implemented in each area of the church. The church will have to abandon everything that is not in the process.” The leadership ought to guide the church into clarity, movement, alignment, and focus. Such a church would be committed to the mission of connecting people to the love of Christ, the life of the church, and the need of the world. A gathering that was experiential in their worship, authentic in their relationship, and incarnational in their evangelism would be incredible.
WAYS AND MEANS OF SHARING CHRIST WITH THIS PEOPLE GROUP
One of the ways that the twenty-first century church can share the gospel with the Bridgers is by exemplifying a commitment to connecting people to the love of Christ through experiential worship. The story of Christ must be centered upon his teachings and actions which are intentionally centered on his Kingdom. Doctrine must be complete in an age of religious inconsistencies. Holistic adoration includes commemoration, teaching, and repentance. Millennials are searching for a meaningful faith that is enveloped in experience. Many are reluctant to say they are religious (either because they have been hurt by alleged hypocrisy or convicted by the gospel) but embrace the image of a spiritual journey. Gatherings should allow for an encounter and response to Christ’s presence through various expressions, experiences, and emotions.
There are specific characteristics that Bridgers would recognize as an authentic worship environment. Every individual has to be welcomed to participate. By no means does this value encourage individualism. Rather, every person is invited to be a recipient and candidate within the corporate identity. The propensity is to heighten the encounter through sound, lighting, and visual aids. While such mediums are not destructive in and of themselves, they must never receive equal footing with the transformational quality of Scripture. Less emphasis must be placed on drawing crowds with an applicable message that attract everyone but convict no one and more stress should be placed upon calling people to a whole new way of living under the leadership of Christ The sermons must be narrative in nature and everything that takes place must be in submission to the revelation of the Bible. The Bridger generation is drawn to deep theological teaching. The pastoral leadership has to be committed to preparing and preaching messages that are biblically-based and culturally-relevant. Walt Mueller, in his book titled Engaging the Soul of Youth Culture, claims that “the emerging generations are especially curious about the relevance of the biblical story for today. We can help them realize that God is still redemptively active in the affairs of humankind . . . how God has changed our lives.”
The manifestations of God must be audibly recognized, admired, and explained. The church must be careful not to compromise the significance of Jesus’ teachings. Leadership ought to ensure that their worship is articulated as a lifestyle rather than merely attending a weekend gathering. This will take purposefulness in integrating songs of praise into the corporate worship setting while still being careful in instructing the congregation that every element of the gathering (i.e. giving, friendship, and study) is all worship. Spontaneity is also always encouraged. Alfonso Wyatt claims, “As long as young people are born, there will be creative tension to interpret the worship of God through the filter of young minds, hearts, talents, and experiences.” Leadership must allow for liberty balanced with order. Guidance should be given to keep people’s attention upon Christ as they seek after the Spirit’s indwelling. The supernatural should be seen as more genuine than the natural. Though Christian spirituality must guard against escapism, Bridgers should never be encouraged to flee the actual world into “an unreality” but rather to participate in an ultimate reality.
The second characteristic of an effective cross-generational approach that transforms the Bridger culture would be in the area of connecting people to the life of the church through genuine relationships. Authentic community should be on full display. God functions in the context of the Trinity and chose to enter into a divine covenant partnership with humanity. Therefore, his people have the privilege and responsibility to exemplify that same equality and self-sacrifice. Bridgers who were once measured as being unhealthy, unattractive, unworthy, and unholy can now be transformed into the very dwelling places of Christ – blessed in order to be a blessing. Every individual brings and receives value from the corporate whole. The church offers Bridgers the reception, affection, protection, and identification they have been looking for.
Fellowship stands in stark contrast with the individualism of past generations. This attitude has successfully infused much of Christianity where, according to the George Barna Group, nearly “ten million self-proclaimed believers have not attended church in the past six months (apart from Christmas and Easter).” H. Richard Niebuhr defines a Christian as one who considers “himself belonging to that community of men for whom Jesus Christ – his life, words, deeds, and destiny – is of supreme importance as the key to the understanding of themselves and their world, the main source of the knowledge of God and man, good and evil, the constant companion of the conscience, and the expected deliverer of evil.” The church ought to be known to enrich marriages, broaden the role of genders in society, and ordain women in church ministry. The twenty-first century offers the opportunity to expand on this divine community. God has always extended an invitation to “the poor, the orphaned, and the widowed, the alien and sojourner, and dead and the good as dead.” Christ instructed his disciples, “But when you give a feast, invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, the blind, and you will be blessed, because they cannot repay you. For you will be repaid at the resurrection of the just.”
Connecting people to the life of the church goes far beyond feeding the marginalized but rather inviting them to identify with your Christ-centered and Spirit-dependent community. Churches must offer and encourage the Bridgers to be involved in small groups where they have the opportunity to discuss the sermon and foster the accountability in applying the principles to their lives. According to Christianity Today, the Barna Group has discovered that “leaders are realizing that it is not just that we need more catechism for youth but a different kind.” A greater amount of tailored, cross-generational instruction for Bridgers is desperately needed so that the church steers clear of portraying that belief and behavior are unconnected. Resources have to be provided for individuals to develop spiritual habits such as daily prayer, reading, and journaling.
The third way that the church can communicate the gospel with the Bridger generation is by authentically connecting people to the need of the world through the incarnational proclamation of Christ’s Kingdom. The Bridger generation is most effectively incorporated into the congregation by way of “service, giving, and missions.” Hubert C. Noble suggests that “the effectiveness of this evangelism depends on the degree to which the living Christ is truly at the heart of it so that by the power of the Holy Spirit the community nourishes in warmth and depth the spiritual life of its members and gives evidence that Christ is the Lord of its own inner life and interpersonal relations.” Rather than competing with the culture, George R. Hunsberger has called Christ followers to reintroduce themselves into the public square by way of grace, humility, courage, creativity, and hope. Tony Richie, the bishop of the Church of God, has called his affiliation to consider a relationally-orientated evangelistic method (one which flows out of discussion). Today’s church has spent too much time portraying a gospel soaked in judgment and not enough emphasis upon forgiveness – to bring reconciliation.
For Bridgers, any and all conversation must flow out of a compassionate heart. Donald Miller, Professor of Religion and Sociology at the University of Southern California, advises that the gospel always include, but no longer be limited to, the personal salvation of just one individual. The gospel must permeate all areas of society – illustrating Jesus’ heart for the insolvent, the innocent, the ill, and the exiled. The Bridgers wish to be more humanitarian (feeding and clothing those who are homeless), caring for those facing catastrophe (recovery from marital difficulties, substance abuse, or medical emergencies) and encouraging local improvements (educational, economic, environmental, and political developments). Ronald Sider suggests that the church has been guilty of translating “Romans without also translating Amos.” Salvation should transform an individual who repents of rebellion, dedicates his life to obedience, enjoys a renewed identity, and as a result confronts organizations of tyranny in the name Jesus.
David Kinnaman proposes that, “Losing the theology and practice of common grace and focusing on conversion over discipleship has contributed greatly to Christianity’s perception problem. When we no longer know what it means (much less care) to be salt and light among those in our culture and to be an influence for good, we forfeit our role as agents of Christ’s kingdom.” Bridgers would be attracted to a church that responds to personal gratification with an unwavering devotion to God, to personal liberties with corporate responsibility, and to capitalism with service and generosity. God’s people must begin to declare allegiance to the heavenly Kingdom instead of an earthly empire. Bridgers tend to be guarded against a church that seems to share close association with any political ideology – such alliances have left much of the gospel feeble and ineffective. The outcome has been a message that rescues the lost without recreating the culture. Government procedures typically entice and ensnare Christianity with wealth, position, indictments, separation, and devastation. George R. Hunsberger has called the church to be missional by way of grace, humility, courage, creativity, and hope.  The natural response would be a church compelled with giving away instead of taking away – answering consumption, domination, isolation, and immorality.
COMPARISON WITH THE NORTH AMERICAN CULTURE
In cross-generational communication, the principles are more important than the methods. There is a delicate balance between the desire to evangelize different age groups with the need to cooperate and sacrifice for one other. Each strategy offers obvious strengths and the possibility of great weaknesses. The seeker-driven model chooses to focus on demographics. Target audiences do bring difficulty in bringing variety to their worship. Others have designed their gatherings around a multi-venue approach. This tactic attempts to offer various types of elements or even goes as far as to present different locations. While generations might be somewhat satisfied with options, the result could be an inconsistency in vision. Others have planted churches out of existing ones in hopes of relating to new groups. Many are added but the long-term could be an inclination in them growing further apart. There are those who attempt to blend the desires of generations into one gathering. The goal of this strategy is for the community to model cooperation and complementation. The typical outcome could be nothing more than disjointed services at best or power struggles at their worst.
Rainer advises that the Bridgers’ “primary spiritual struggle is about mattering to someone and about meaning something to self and to others and, ultimately, to God. If you feel empty, you may think that you do not matter very much.” They must come to realize that they have the opportunity to “shape the attitudes, values, economics, and lifestyles of America.” They will be the dominant adult population group for at least the first half of the next century. The Bridgers already make up well over a quarter of the nation and will be the dominant generation for most of the century. They are secure “in their academic ability, leadership ability, mathematical ability, popularity, and social skills but are no less likely to be altruistic in helping others and participating in community service [and] consider raising a family to be essential or very important.”
EVALUATION OF THE CULTURE AND WORLDVIEWS
David J. Hesselgrave, Director of the School of World Mission and Evangelism at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, considers the command to be witnesses to “the uttermost parts of the world [as taking] on cultural as well as geographical significance. Yet numerous missionaries have entered cultures without any attention whatsoever to the social structures, evidently assuming that the culture would be a carbon copy of their own or that differences would prove to be unimportant.” A dilution of bible instruction will cause the Millennials to believe that they are being deceived once they discover a significant disparity in what the Scripture teaches compared to what they are receiving from leadership. The church has to foster and maintain devotion to Christ’s mission of making disciples by modeling an approach after the apostles who boldly proclaimed, “For we cannot but speak of what we have seen and heard.” One cannot overemphasize discipleship and fellowship while disregarding evangelism and social action.
That being said, the church has to promote cooperation amongst the different ages. Bridgers are hungry for mentors’ consideration and communication. The bible counsels the young to listen to the wisdom of the elders and the elders to “focus on the inherent values of Scripture rather than on the personal habits or stylistic differences . . . scriptural values, such as honestly, overcoming temptations, wise use of the tongue, and putting God first, are values all generations need to adopt.” Leadership has to intentionally correct the course of biblical illiteracy. Mentoring is a vital aspect because those who do not understand the bible will be the ones who continue to disobey it.
This cultural study on Bridgers has suggested that the church take a cross-generational approach that includes a completeness of biblical practice, a unified fellowship of diverse people groups, and an intentional evangelistic strategy. This is a generation in the midst of a monumental transition – spiritually, socially, and technologically. With their size, the Bridgers have the capability to transform the direction of the church, nation, and world. Previous generations, especially the Boomers, have the responsibility to guide them to Christ in their most formative years. The challenge is to relate the unchanging gospel to an ever-shifting culture. The bible proclaims, “We will not hide them from their children; we will tell the next generation the praiseworthy deeds of the Lord, his power, and the wonders he has done.”
APPENDIX ONE: DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1. Due partly to technological advances, Bridgers are more inclined to reflect, arrange, and expand their thoughts through radically different methods than previous age groups. They are more comfortable in networking with things that surround them and can be misperceived as lacking commitment as they quickly shift between projects. With that being considered, what are some ways that the church can utilize technology in cross-generational communication? What are some of the obvious challenges?
2. In order to share Christ with the emerging generation, the pastoral leadership has the responsibility of taking existing busy, programmatic, and attractional churches and navigating the Bridgers through the transformation of becoming simple, intentional, and missional in their approach. Do you agree or disagree? What other methods might cross-cultural communicators consider?
3. This essay proposes a cultural study of a cross-generational ministry to the Bridgers that includes a holistic doctrine, an incarnational community, and a missional mindset. Do you agree or disagree? What might those cross-cultural principles look like in your ministry situation?
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Sider, Ronald J. Good News and Good Works. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1999.
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2009. “Who Do You Think You Are? The Global Church Needs to Ground Youth in
Their True, Deepest Identity.” Christianity Today 53, no. 2: 19-19. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed June 6, 2009).
 Gary L. McIntosh. One Church, Four Generations (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2002), 15.
 Ibid, 161.
 Thom S. Rainer and Sam S. Rainer, Essential Church (Nashville, TN: B&H Publishing Group, 2008), 3.
 Ibid, 15.
 Gary L. McIntosh, 22.
 Psalm 45:17, English Standard Version.
 Gary L. McIntosh, 165.
 Ibid, 168.
 Ibid, 172.
 Chap Clark. Hurt (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2004), 102
 Ibid, 120.
 Thom S. Rainer. The Bridger Generation (Nashville, TN: B&H Publishing, 2006), 127.
 Thom S. Rainer. The Bridger Generation, 57.
 Daniel Oudshoorn. “Speaking Christianly as a Missional Activity in the Midst of Babel:
Christian Living as the Exegesis of the Gospel Proclamation after the End of History.” Stimulus 14, no. 1 (2006): 14. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials,
 Gary L. McIntosh, 164.
 George Barna. Real Teens (Venture, CA: Regal Books, 2001), 95.
 Gary L. McIntosh, 174-5.
 Chap Clark, 19.
 Ibid, 117.
 Gary L. McIntosh, 169.
 Thom S. Rainer, 122.
 Philippians 2:7, English Standard Version.
 Thom S. Rainer and Sam S. Rainer, 5.
 Gary L. McIntosh, 180.
 Charles H. Kraft, Communication Theory for Christian Witness (Nashville: Abington Press, 1994), 40.
 Ibid, 172.
 Ibid, viii.
 Thom S. Rainer and Eric Geiger, Simple Church (Nashville, TN: B&H Publishing
Group, 2006), 68.
 Ibid, 135.
 Daniel Oudshoorn, 14.
 Rebecca Jaichandran and B D. Madhav. “Pentecostal Spirituality in a Postmodern
World.” Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 6, no. 1 (2003): 49. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed January 31, 2009).
 Rebecca Jaichandran and B D. Madhav, 42, 59-60.
 William H Willimon. “Evangelism in the Twenty-First Century: Mainliners at the
Margins.” Journal for Preachers 30, no. 4 (2007): 7. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed January 31, 2009).
 Walt Mueller. Engaging the Soul of Youth Culture (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2006), 194.
 Rebecca Jaichandran and B D. Madhav, 58.
 Alfonso Wyatt. “The “Flava” of Youth Worship.” Living Pulpit 12, no. 3: 44-44. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed June 6, 2009), 45.
 Daniel Oudshoorn, 20.
 Daniel Chiquete. “Latin American Pentecostalism and Western Postmodernism:
Reflections on a Complex Relationship.” International Review of Mission 92, no. 364 (2003): 33. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed January 31, 2009).
 Daniel Chiquete, 32.
 Clark Pinnock. “Church in the Power of the Holy Spirit: the Promise of
Pentecostal ecclesiology.” Journal of Pentecostal Theology 14 ed., ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed January 31, 2009). 149.
 H. Richard Niebuhr. Christ and Culture (New York: Harper Collins, 1996) 11.
 Michael J. McClymond. “We’re Not in Kansas Anymore: The Roots and Routes of World
Pentecostalism.” Religious Studies Review 33, no. 4 (2007): 277. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed January 31, 2009).
 William H Willimon, 7.
 Luke 14:13-14, English Standard Version.
 Christianity Today. “Who Do You Think You Are? The Global Church Needs to Ground Youth in Their True, Deepest Identity. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed June 6, 2009), 19.
 Thom S. Rainer and Sam S. Rainer, 199.
 Ibid, 86.
 Hubert C. Noble. “Evangelism on the College Campus.” Theology Today 11, no. 1: ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed June 6, 2009), 67.
 George R. Hunsberger. “The Mission of Public Theology: An Exploration.” Svensk
Missionstidskrift 93, no. 3 9 (2005): ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed January 31, 2009), 318.
 Tony Richie. “Revamping Pentecostal Evangelism: Appropriating Walter J. Hollenweger’s Radical Proposal.” International Review of Mission 96, no. 382 (2007): 343-354. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed January 31, 2009).
 Ibid, 347.
 Harvey G. Cox. “Global Pentecostalism: The New Face of Christian Social
Engagement.” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 32, no. 2 (2008): ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed January 31, 2009), 108.
 Donald E. Miller. “2006 SSSR Presidential Address–Progressive Pentecostals:
The New Face of Christian Social Engagement.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 46, no. 4 (2007): 440, 444. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed January 31, 2009).
 Ronald Sider, Good News and Good Works (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1999, 175.
 David Kinnaman. Unchristian (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 224.
 Ronald Sider, 174.
 George R. Hunsberger, 322.
 Daniel Oudshoorn, 21.
 Gary L. McIntosh, 211.
 Ibid, 212.
 Ibid, 214.
 Ronald J. Nydam. “The Relational Theology of Generation Y.” Calvin Theological
Journal 41, no. 2: ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed June 6, 2009), 326.
 Thom S. Rainer. The Bridger Generation, 6.
 Ibid, 9.
 David J. Hesselgrave. Communicating Christ Cross-Culturally (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1991), 454.
 Thom S. Rainer and Sam S. Rainer, 16.
 Acts 4:20, English Standard Version.
 Ibid, 18.
 Gary L. McIntosh, 232.
 Thom S. Rainer and Sam S. Rainer, 19.
 Ibid, 18.
 Psalm 78:4